Green Space Soundscape And Urban Sustainability Essay

Fig. 1. Quietness has become a luxury. Image source: © Antonella Radicchi 2017

By Antonella Radicchi, PhD

The Quiet Coalition just broadened its scope in two ways, adding its first international member who is also an architect with a PhD in Urban Design and a soundscape researcher.  Antonella Radicchi’s essay below, summarizing the European approach to noise and her own innovative approach to urban noise, is a little longer than most TQC content but well worth reading. I just returned from the 12th Congress of the International Commission on the Biological Effects of Noise in Zurich, Switzerland, and it’s clear that the European Union is far ahead of the United States in understanding the health and other hazards that noise creates.

Thanks to Antonella for joining The Quiet Coalition, and for writing such a wonderful essay.

Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

Noise pollution and Europe’s adoption of “quiet areas”

According to the World Health Organization, noise from road traffic is the second most harmful environmental stressor affecting human health after air pollution. In Europe, over 125 million people are affected by noise pollution every year. The detrimental effects of noise arise mainly from the stress reaction it causes in the human body, which can potentially lead to premature death, cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, sleep disturbance, and hypertension. Addressing noise pollution is therefore imperative.

In 2002, the European Environmental Noise Directive 2002/49/EC (END) was adopted with the aim of establishing a common approach to avoid, prevent, and reduce noise pollution among the Member States. The END provides a quantitative methodology based on:

  • “noise indicators” (e.g. “Lnight (night-time noise indicator), Lden (day-evening-night noise indicator)) to calculate and describe noise pollution from traffic by means of a physical scale and sound pressure levels;
  • “noise maps” to represent it and inform the public about it and the related harmful effects; and
  • “action plans” based on noise-mapping results to manage noise issues and effects, including noise reduction if necessary.

The END also aims to protect and plan quiet areas to reduce noise pollution. It defines a “quiet area in open country” and a “quiet area in an agglomeration” by applying noise indicators and thresholds established by the respective Member States, but does not provide a common methodology.

Consequently, to implement the measure of quiet areas, Member States have experimented with diverse methods developed on the municipality level and through European funded research projects (e.g. QSIDE, Hosanna, QUADMAP, etc.) as reported in the European Environment Agency (EEA) publication, “Good Practice Guide on Quiet Areas.” Even though the practice guide exists, the EEA has stated that in-depth research in the field is still needed, and it has encouraged scholars to experiment with mixed methodologies by integrating more qualitative approaches, such as the “soundscape approach,” with the more quantitative ones based on noise indicators.

Against this background, my project–“Beyond the Noise: Open Source Soundscapes”–aims to fill this gap by proposing a novel mixed methodology to identify, assess, and plan everyday quiet areas in cities based on the soundscape approach, the citizen science paradigm, and a novel mobile application, the Hush City app.

Quietness as a commons

The soundscape approach has been developed in diverse disciplinary fields by researchers in Europe and beyond based on early concepts from the 1960’s by R. M. Schafer through the World Soundscape Project group (see, Karlsson, H., “The Acoustic Environment as a Public Domain,” Soundscape, The Journal of Acoustic Ecology, Vol.1, No. 2, 2000). This approach has been shown to be essential to improving the quality of life in urban areas. Its importance has been confirmed by the development of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard norms that provide theoretical and methodological frameworks for soundscape definition, analyses, and evaluation. According to the ISO norm, a soundscape is “an environment of sound (or sonic environment) with emphasis on the way it is perceived and understood by the individual, or by a society.”

The soundscape approach has three main assumptions:

By addressing the issue of quiet areas through the lens of soundscape, I developed my project’s hypothesis: quiet areas should be considered as a commons, i.e., “cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society,” which should be “co-governed by its user community, according to the rules and norms of that community.“

Consequently, I propose that an “everyday quiet area” could be defined as “a small, public, quiet spot embedded in the city fabric, at walking distance from the places we work and live, where social interaction and spoken communication are not only undisturbed, but even favored.” Based on this definition, I assume that a combination of diverse qualitative and quantitative criteria could be applied to identify and evaluate quiet areas in cities, such as peoples’ preferences, accessibility, (small) size and (neighborhood) scale, the walking distance paradigm, and the soon-to-be-implemented “human voice scale” concept (i.e., using the human voice as a measure for designing human acoustic environments). These hypotheses have to be validated through the citizen-driven pilot study.

Citizen science applied to soundscape research

The soundscape paradigm has become an important tool in facilitating people’s involvement in soundscape evaluations and decision processes about the sonic environment, but public participation in research on quiet areas is still at the early stages.  Inspired by citizen science trends in the use of GPS-equipped smartphones as sensors in data collection and evaluations in the field of environmental noise, e.g. WideNoise, NoiseWatch, I determined that developing a mobile app, the Hush City app, would be the most innovative approach. Many if not most citizens have smartphones that they use everyday which could be involved in this research via the app. Essentially, the Hush City app empowers citizens in local communities to play an active role in the mapping, evaluation, and planning of quiet areas.

The open source soundscapes methodology

The “open source soundscapes” methodology requires public participation and is implemented by means of a pilot study. There are four phases to this methodology:

  • Analyses. To collect qualitative and quantitative data related to existing and potential everyday quiet areas in the fieldwork area, the following methods are used: open interviews, group soundwalks, and data collection via the Hush City mobile app. These activities were combined to avoid social exclusion due to a digital divide.
  • Evaluation. The collected data will be analyzed to design a map of everyday quiet areas that will be evaluated to better understand what quietness in cities means to people and to validate the research project hypothesis, research questions, and methods.
  • Planning. According to the evaluation results, an “Everyday Quiet Area Master Plan” will be drafted accompanying by a toolkit of planning guidelines on how to preserve existing everyday quiet areas and, eventually, plan new ones.
  • Ex-post evaluation. To make ex-post evaluations and disseminate the project’s results, we will schedule working sessions with the population involved in the project to discuss and evaluate the results. The results will be presented and discussed to the public at a conference, and a permanent exhibition will be established in a space chosen in accordance with the StadtteilBüro Reuterkiez, where the local community can access and interact with the project results. Data from the working sessions and public presentations will be added to the project outcomes.

*     *     *

“[I]t is imperative that we take action against noise pollution….the concept of “quietness as a commons” is an appropriate way…to achieve environmentally just, sustainable, and participatory urban planning….”

*     *     *

The Pilot Study: Methods and Tools

The open source soundscapes methodology is currently being evaluated under a pilot study in Berlin. The municipality developed and adopted an official “Plan of Quiet Areas,” using the framework of the Berlin Noise Reduction Plan released in 2008, in line with the END’s requirements. In this plan, quiet areas are identified according to two categories: “continuous open areas” and “recreational areas.” The former are “forest, green spaces, parks, fields, farmland and meadows,” larger than 100 hectares, and with noise levels below 55 dB(A). The latter are “green areas and recreation areas near residential areas within walking distance,” larger than 30 hectares, and characterized by a relative limit noise level value of 6dB(A). That is, in the recreational areas the sound pressure levels at their cores should be 6dB(A) lower than the levels measured at their borders. This goal of identifying and protecting quiet areas “within walking distance” from residential areas was only partially addressed, however. By implementing the “open source soundscapes” methodology this gap could be fulfilled and the ultimate goal of building a network of quiet areas at a walking distance from the places people live (and work) can be achieved.

The pilot study is in the Reuterkiez, a Berlin “kiez” (neighborhood) located in the district of Neukölln, which is affected by significant social and urban changes (e.g. “touristification” processes) and high levels of environmental injustice. According to the Berlin Environmental Justice Atlas, “the term environmental justice refers to the type, extent and consequences of the unequal social distribution of environmental loads and to its reasons.” Consequently, environmental justice refers to the integrated levels of pollution affecting Berlin, which are calculated by combining the following core indicators: air pollution, noise load, accessibility to green spaces, thermal load, and social issues. The Reuterkiez was among those areas most affected by environmental injustice.

The pilot study is being conducted in collaboration with the StadtteilBüro Reuterkiez, a governmental office established under the framework of the EU and nationally funded Social City program, which has its venue in the neighborhood. This collaboration has facilitated the organization of many activities such as: participant recruitment, public presentations, group soundwalks, network development with local groups and associations, my active involvement in the everyday life of the kiez. Community hours are also offered at the Kinder Kiosk in Reuterplatz, the core area of the kiez, to inform residents about the project and to get them involved in its fieldwork activities, such as, open interviews, groups soundwalks, and data collection using the Hush City app, as detailed below.

Narrative interviews

These interviews are semi-structured interviews conducted with both local experts and non-experts, e.g., people from local organizations, sound artists, and people working and/or living in the kiez. Interviewees are first asked whether they live and/or work in the neighborhood or are visitors. Then, open questions follow up, focusing on: if they have favorite quiet spots in the neighborhood, and if yes, where and why, whether they would favor protection for their favorite quite spots, and whether they would like to participate in group soundwalks and/or use the Hush City app.

Soundwalks

Soundwalks have been conducted with both people from local organizations, sound artists, people working and/or living in the neighborhood, and young students from the Rütlischule, a school based in the neighborhood. A soundwalk is “any excursion whose main purpose is listening to the environment.” For this study, diverse methods have been applied to design the soundwalks in accordance with the “4 Variations” scheme outlined in “A Pocket Guide to Soundwalking.” Both silent soundwalks as well as soundwalks with complex evaluation points have been performed to sensitize participants towards the importance of quietness in cities and to involve them in quiet areas analyses and evaluation processes.

The Hush City app

Fig.2. The Hush City app’s logo. Image source: © Antonella Radicchi 2017

The Hush City app was developed to help people collect and evaluate quantitative and qualitative data related to their favorite everyday quiet areas by enabling them to record sounds, calculate the noise pressure levels, take a photo of the place recorded, and collect user feedback via a questionnaire. The app was developed from scratch after a review of the state of the art of mobile apps available on the market showed that none of the existing apps had those characteristics (see, Radicchi, A., “The HUSH CITY app,” Invisible Places, Proceedings of the International Conference on Sound, Urbanism and the Sense of Place (expected Fall 2017)). Developing a tool that collects both qualitative and quantitative data allows for bridge building between the noise level-oriented approach that is practiced by acoustic planning, and a more qualitative and people-oriented one that is typically applied in soundscape research.

The Hush City app offers the users two options:

  1. They can map and evaluate everyday quiet areas in their neighborhoods; and/or
  2. They can use the app to find nearby everyday quiet spots that have been mapped by other members of the community.

By accessing the Hush City app’s home page, users are invited to select the action they would like to make (see Fig. 4). In addition, a  menu on the bottom of the screen offers various options (e.g., return to home page, consult user surveys, give feedback, change settings, etc.). Finally the search feature allows the user to find quiet areas mapped in specific cities by typing in the name of the desired city.

Fig.3. Hush City app: “Map the quietness around you” interface. Image source: © Antonella Radicchi 2017

Fig.4. Hush City app: “Quiet Areas” interface. Image source: © Antonella Radicchi 2017

A user guideline is provided to support pilot study participants and people interested in participating in the Hush City project worldwide. For the pilot study, data collected by participants via the app, open interviews, and group soundwalk will then be evaluated and will form the basis for the development of an Everyday Quiet Areas Masterplan.

The Everyday Quiet Areas Masterplan

The Hush City app and the “Everyday Quiet Areas Masterplan” constitute the open source outputs of the project. The latter is a participative management plan, which will take the local level results and scale them to city level by:

  • Providing guidelines on protecting existing quiet areas identified by local communities and, eventually, guidance on planning new quiet areas; and
  • Defining these indications by taking into account complementary city plans, such as the official quiet areas plan, the urban mobility plan, the land use plan, the green areas plan, to mention a few.

The Everyday Quiet Areas Masterplan will be developed in the planning phase of the project, which will start in the Fall 2017.

Impact

The “open source soundscapes” methodology can be applied to other Berlin neighborhoods and, potentially, to other cities worldwide that are affected by noise pollution and environmental injustice, leading to insightful comparative studies. Grounded on the concept of “quietness as a commons,” the methodology’s theoretical, methodological, and political impact can contribute to a plan of small, quiet areas in cities developed with public participation that embeds peoples’ preferences by way of the open source planning process. This public participation could be part of a collaborative effort with local authorities.

In Berlin, the collaboration with the StadtteilBüro Reuterkiez has been designed to ensure the project continues to have a positive impact on the neighborhood even after the project ends. To that effect, two activities have been envisioned. One activity is the development of a one-day long workshop to train people in soundscape action research so that they will be able to exploit the project results and diffuse the soundscape culture in the neighborhood. The other, the “Soundwalking in the kiez!” program run in collaboration with the Rütlischule based in the kiez, was kicked off on International Noise Awareness Day 2017 (April 25th). In future years, annual sound walks will be organized and guided to celebrate International Noise Awareness Day. You can read more about this year’s soundwalk here.

Future Work

We are currently in the midst of the analyses phases: first results were presented and discussed at Acousitcs17 in Boston on June 26. The presentation’s slides are available at this link. The planning and ex-post evaluation phases are expected to begin by the end of the Fall 2017. The final evaluation of the collected data will be discussed in October 2017 at the Stadtteilekonferenz, a public conference which will take place in the Reuterkiez. The planning and ex-post evaluation phases are expected to begin by the end of the Fall 2017.

Future work may lead to the the implementation of new features in the Hush City app (e.g., additional languages, automatic calibration processes), a further investigation of the quiet spots identified by the participants by means of psychoacoustic analyses, and comparative studies with other cities worldwide, such as Cambridge, Massachusetts, where approximately 50 surveys have already made by using the Hush City app.

Conclusion

As I wrote in the introduction, it is imperative that we take action against noise pollution. I strongly believe that the concept of “quietness as a commons” is an appropriate way to tackle this challenge and to achieve environmentally just, sustainable, and participatory urban planning development in the city of Berlin and beyond.

Acknowledgements

The “Beyond the Noise: Open Source Soundscapes” research project was created and is conducted by Dr. Antonella Radicchi (Technical University of Berlin).

Project Supervisors: Professor Dr. Dietrich Henckel (Technical University of Berlin), M.A. Jörg Kaptain (Berlin Senate, Senate Department for the Environment, Transport and Climate Protection).
Acoustic Consultants: M.A. Michael Jäcker-Cüppers (DEGA; German Society of Acoustics), Professor Michael Jäcker-Cüppers (Technical University of Berlin), Dipl. Ing. Manuel Frost (Berlin Senate, Senate Department for the Environment, Transport and Climate Protection), Dipl. Ing. Mattia Cobianchi (Bowers & Wilkins, UK).
Software Development: QUERTEX GmbH (GER) in cooperation with EdgeWorks Software Ltd.
The pilot study is proudly conducted in collaboration with Rabea and Dominik from the Stadtteilbüro Reuterkiez!

The project has received the no-profit istitutional support of the Berlin Senate and has been developed in accordance with the Berlin Senate, Senate Department for the Environment, Transport and Climate Protection.

The research project has received funding from the IPODI-Marie Curie Fellowship – People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA grant agreement no. 600209 (TU Berlin/IPODI).

See also: Soundscape ecology

"Soundscapes" redirects here. For the album, see Soundscapes (album).

The soundscape is the component of the acoustic environment that can be perceived by humans. There is a varied history of the use of soundscape depending on discipline, ranging from urban design to wildlifeecology. An important distinction is to separate soundscape from the broader acoustic environment. The acoustic environment is the combination of all the acoustic resources, natural and artificial, within a given area as modified by the environment. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standardized these definitions in 2014.(ISO 12913-1:2014)

Historical context[edit]

The term soundscape was first noted by Michael Southworth in a 1969 article titled "The Sonic Environment of Cities," published by Environment and Behavior, and fleshed out in more detail eight years later by Canadian composer and naturalist, R. Murray Schafer in his seminal work, "Tuning of the World." According to this author there are three main elements of the soundscape:

A soundscape is a sound or combination of sounds that forms or arises from an immersiveenvironment. The study of soundscape is the subject of acoustic ecology or soundscape ecology. The idea of soundscape refers to both the natural acoustic environment, consisting of natural sounds, including animal vocalizations, the collective habitat expression of which is now referred to as the biophony, and, for instance, the sounds of weather and other natural elements, now referred to as the geophony; and environmental sounds created by humans, the anthropophony through a sub-set called controlled sound, such as musical composition, sound design, and language, work, and sounds of mechanical origin resulting from use of industrial technology. Crucially, the term soundscape also includes the listener's perception of sounds heard as an environment: "how that environment is understood by those living within it" [1] and therefore mediates their relations. The disruption of these acoustic environments results in noise pollution.[2]

The term "soundscape" can also refer to an audio recording or performance of sounds that create the sensation of experiencing a particular acoustic environment, or compositions created using the found sounds of an acoustic environment, either exclusively or in conjunction with musical performances.[3][4]

Pauline Oliveros, composer of post-World War IIelectronic art music, defined the term "soundscape" as "All of the waveforms faithfully transmitted to our audio cortex by the ear and its mechanisms".[5]

This is a musical term that identifies the key of a piece, not always audible ... the key might stray from the original, but it will return. The keynote sounds may not always be heard consciously, but they "outline the character of the people living there" (Schafer). They are created by nature (geography and climate): wind, water, forests, plains, birds, insects, animals. In many urban areas, traffic has become the keynote sound.
These are foreground sounds, which are listened to consciously; examples would be warning devices, bells, whistles, horns, sirens, etc.
This is derived from the term landmark. A soundmark is a sound which is unique to an area. In his 1993 book, The Soundscape: Our Sonic Environment and the Tuning of the World, Schafer wrote, "Once a Soundmark has been identified, it deserves to be protected, for soundmarks make the acoustic life of a community unique."[6]

The elements have been further defined as to essential sources:

Bernie Krause, naturalist and soundscape ecologist, redefined the sources of sound in terms of their three main components: geophony, biophony, and anthropophony.[7][8][9]

Consisting of the prefix, geo (gr. earth), and phon (gr. sound), this refers to the soundscape sources that are generated by non-biological natural sources such as wind in the trees, water in a stream or waves at the ocean, and earth movement, the first sounds heard on earth by any sound-sentient organism.
Consisting of the prefix, bio (gr. life) and the suffix for sound, this term refers to all of the non-human, non-domestic biological soundscape sources of sound.
Consisting of the prefix, anthro (gr. human), this term refers to all of the sound signatures generated by humans.

In music[edit]

In music, soundscape compositions are often a form of electronic music, or electroacoustic music. Composers who use soundscapes include real-time granular synthesis pioneer Barry Truax, Hildegard Westerkamp, and Luc Ferrari, whose Presque rien, numéro 1 (1970) is an early soundscape composition.[4][10] Soundscape composer Petri Kuljuntausta has created soundscape compositions from the sounds of sky dome and Aurora Borealis and deep sea underwater recordings, and a work entitled "Charm of Sound" to be performed at the extreme environment of Saturn's moon Titan. The work landed on the ground of Titan in 2005 after traveling inside the spacecraft Huygens over seven years and four billion kilometres through space.

Irv Teibel's Environments series (1969–79) consisted of 30-minute, uninterrupted environmental soundscapes and synthesized or processed versions of natural sound.[11]

Music soundscapes can also be generated by automated software methods, such as the experimental TAPESTREA application, a framework for sound design and soundscape composition, and others.[12][13]

The soundscape is often the subject of mimicry in Timbre-centered music such as Tuvan throat singing. The process of Timbral Listening is used to interpret the timbre of the soundscape. This timbre is mimicked and reproduced using the voice or rich harmonic producing instruments.[14]

In United States National Parks[edit]

The National Park Service Natural Sounds and Night Skies Division actively protects the soundscapes and acoustic environments in national parks across the country. It is important to distinguish and define certain key terms as used by the National Park Service. Acoustic resources are physical sound sources, including both natural sounds (wind, water, wildlife, vegetation) and cultural and historic sounds (battle reenactments, tribal ceremonies, quiet reverence). The acoustic environment is the combination of all the acoustic resources within a given area – natural sounds and human-caused sounds – as modified by the environment. The acoustic environment includes sound vibrations made by geological processes, biological activity, and even sounds that are inaudible to most humans, such as bat echolocation calls. Soundscape is the component of the acoustic environment that can be perceived and comprehended by the humans. The character and quality of the soundscape influence human perceptions of an area, providing a sense of place that differentiates it from other regions. Noise refers to sound which is unwanted, either because of its effects on humans and wildlife, or its interference with the perception or detection of other sounds. Cultural soundscapes include opportunities for appropriate transmission of cultural and historic sounds that are fundamental components of the purposes and values for which the parks were established.

Sounds recorded in national parks

Yellowstone National Park Sound Library

The environment[edit]

There are two distinct soundscapes, either hi-fi or lo-fi, created by the environment. A hi-fi system possesses a positive signal-to-noise ratio.[15] These settings make it possible for discrete sounds to be heard clearly since there is no background noise to obstruct even the smallest disturbance. A rural landscape offers more hi-fi frequencies than a city because the natural landscape creates an opportunity to hear incidences from nearby and afar. In a lo-fi soundscape, signals are obscured by too many sounds, and perspective is lost within the broad-band of noises.[15] In lo-fi soundscapes everything is very close and compact. A person can only listen to immediate encounters; in most cases even ordinary sounds have to be exuberantly amplified in order to be heard.

All sounds are unique in nature. They occur at one time in one place and can't be replicated. In fact, it is physically impossible for nature to reproduce any phoneme twice in exactly the same manner.[15]

In health care[edit]

Soundscapes from a computerized acoustic device with a camera may also offer synthetic vision to the blind, utilizing human echolocation, as is the goal of the seeing with sound project.[16]

Noise pollution[edit]

Papers on noise pollution are increasingly taking a holistic, soundscape approach to noise control. Whereas acoustics tends to rely on lab measurements and individual acoustic characteristics of cars and so on, soundscape takes a top-down approach. Drawing on John Cage's ideas of the whole world as composition,[17] soundscape researchers investigate people's attitudes to soundscapes as a whole rather than individual aspects – and look at how the entire environment can be changed to be more pleasing to the ear.

It has been suggested that people's opportunity to access quiet, natural places in urban areas can be enhanced by improving the ecological quality of urban green spaces through targeted planning and design and that in turn has psychological benefits.[18]

Soundscaping as a method to reducing noise pollution incorporates natural elements rather than just man made elements.[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • 1969 The New Soundscape - R. Murray Schafer
  • 1977 The Tuning of the World - R. Murray Schafer (ISBN 0-394-40966-3)
    These 2 works were adapted to become part of the 1993 book, The Soundscape: Our Sonic Environment and the Tuning of the World - R. Murray Schafer (ISBN 0-89281-455-1)
  • 1977 Five village soundscapes (Music of the environment series) - A.R.C. Publications (ISBN 0-88985-005-4)
  • 1978 Handbook for Acoustic Ecology - Barry Truax (ISBN 0-88985-011-9)
  • 1985 Acoustic Communication : Second Edition - Barry Truax & World Soundscape Project (ISBN 1-56750-537-6
  • 1994 Soundscapes: Essays on Vroom and Moo, Eds: Jarviluoma, Helmi - Department of Folk Tradition
  • 2002/2016 Wild Soundscapes: Discovering the Voice of the Natural World - Bernie Krause (Yale University Press, ISBN 0300218192) - book & QR link to audio
  • 2002 Linking Soundscape Composition and Acoustic Ecology - Hildegard Westerkamp:
  • 2003 Site Soundscapes: Landscape architecture in the light of sound - Sonotope Design Strategies, Per Hedfors (Diss.: ISSN 1401-6249ISBN 91-576-6425-0[1] Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Diss. summary: ISBN 978-3-639-09413-8
  • 2004 "Voicescapes: The (en)chanting voice & its performance soundscapes" in Soundscape: The Journal of Acoustic Ecology Vol.5 No.2 - Henry Johnson 26-29 ISSN 1607-3304
  • 2004 The Auditory Culture Reader (Sensory Formations) - Michael Bull (ISBN 1-85973-618-1)
  • 2005 "Acoustic Ecology Considered as a Connotation: Semiotic, Post-Colonial and Educational Views of Soundscape" in Soundscape: The Journal of Acoustic Ecology Vol.6 No.2 - Tadahiko Imada 13-17 (ISSN 1607-3304)
  • 2006 Qualitative Judgements of Urban Soundscapes: Questionning Questionnaires and Semantic Scales - Raimbault, Manon, Acta Acustica united with Acustica 92(6), 929–937
  • "Soundscapes / Paesaggi sonori". lo Squaderno (10). December 2008. ISSN 1973-9141. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  • 2006, "Gebiete, Schichten und Klanglandschaften in den Alpen. Zum Gebrauch einiger historischer Begriffe aus der Musikethnologie", Marcello Sorce Keller, in T. Nussbaumer (ed.), Volksmusik in den Alpen: Interkulturelle Horizonte und Crossovers, Salzburg, Verlag Mueller-Speiser, 2006, pp. 9–18.
  • 2006 The West Meets the East in Acoustic Ecology (Tadahiko Imada Kozo Hiramatsuet al. Eds), Japanese Association for Sound Ecology & Hirosaki University International Music Centre ISBN 4-9903332-1-7
  • 2008 "Soundscape, postcolonial and music education: Experiencing the earliest grain of the body and music" - Tadahiko Imada in Music Education Policy and Implementation: International Perspectives (Chi Cheung Leung, Lai Chi Rita Yip and Tadahiko Imada Eds, Hirosaki UniversityPress) ISBN 978-4-902774-39-9
  • 2009 A Little Sound Education - R. Murray Schafer & Tadahiko Imada (Shunjusha, Tokyo) ISBN 978-4-393-93539-2
  • 2012 The Great Animal Orchestra: Finding the Origins of Music in the World's Wild Places, Bernie Krause, Little Brown New York, ISBN 978-0-316-08687-5
  • 2015 Voices of the Wild: Animal Songs, Human Din, and the Call to Save Natural Soundscapes - Bernie Krause (Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-20631-9) - book & links to audio examples

External links[edit]

  1. ^Truax, Barry (2001). Acoustic Communication. Ablex Publishing Corporation. p. 11. ISBN 9781567505375. 
  2. ^Krause, Bernie (2016). Voices of the Wild: Human Din, and the Call to Save Natural Soundscapes. Yale University Press. pp. all. ISBN 978-0-30020631-9. 
  3. ^LaBelle, Brandon (2006). Background Noise: Perspectives on Sound Art. Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 198, 214. ISBN 0-8264-1845-7. 
  4. ^ abTruax, Barry (1992). "Electroacoustic Music and the Soundscape: The inner and the Outer World". In Paynter, John. Companion to Contemporary Musical Thought. Routledge. pp. 374–398. ISBN 0-415-07225-5. 
  5. ^Oliveros, Pauline (2005). Deep Listening: A Composer's Sound Practice. iUniverse. p. 18. ISBN 0-595-34365-1. 
  6. ^Schafer, R. Murray (1993). The Soundscape: Our Sonic Environment and the Tuning of the World. Inner Traditions/Bear & Co. p. 10. ISBN 978-089281455-8. 
  7. ^Krause, Bernie (2012). The Great Animal Orchestra: Finding the Origins of Music in the World's Wild Places. Little Brown. p. 278. ISBN 978-0-316-08687-5. 
  8. ^Krause, B (January–February 2008). "The Anatomy of a Soundscape". Journal of the Audio Engineering Society. 56 (1/2). 
  9. ^Pijanowski, Bryan C.; Villanueva-Rivera, Luis J.; Dumyahn, Sarah L.; Farina, Almo; Krause, Bernie; Napoletano, Brian M.; Gage, Stuart H.; Pieretti, Nadia (March 2011). "Soundscape Ecology: The Science of Sound in the Landscape". BioScience. 61 (3): 203–216. doi:10.1525/bio.2011.61.3.6. 
  10. ^Roads, Curtis (2001). Microsound. Cambridge: MIT Press. p. 312. ISBN 0-262-18215-7. 
  11. ^Teibel, Irv. "Mother Nature Goes Digital". Atari Archives. Retrieved 18 November 2015. 
  12. ^Boodler ambient soundscape generator written in Python
  13. ^fLOW ambient soundscape generator (Apple Macintosh)
  14. ^Levin, Theodore (2006). Where Rivers and Mountains Sing, Sound, Music and Nomadism in Tuva and Beyond. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 
  15. ^ abcSchafer, Murray (2004). Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music. New York, NY: Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 29–38. 
  16. ^Seeing with Sound
  17. ^needs citation
  18. ^Irvine, K. N.; Devine-Wright, P.; Payne, S. R.; Fuller, R. A.; Painter, B.; Gaston, K. J. (2009). "Green space, soundscape and urban sustainability: An interdisciplinary, empirical study". Local Environment. 14 (2): 155. doi:10.1080/13549830802522061. 
  19. ^"Soundscaping | Sound Control". soundcontroltech.com. Retrieved 2017-04-19. 

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