There are different types of referencing styles that can be used in your work: a footnote style, a numbered style or a an author-date style. You may be asked to just use an author-date style or you may be told to use an exact style, for example, the MLA style. If you know what referencing system you need to use, click the tab above 'Styles used at Kent'. If you are not sure which style to use, click the tab above 'Styles used by School'. Note that some schools use more than one referencing style. If you are not sure which style to use, check with your module handbook or your tutor.
- Footnote Style
Reference information is kept in footnotes and not placed in the body of the text. Depending on the style, a bibliography or reference list is included. This style includes Chicago (but note that this has two versions: footnote or author-date); MHRA and OSCOLA (legal referencing).
- Numbered Style
Creates a numerical list of references in the list of works cited, based on the order in which the works appear in the text. This style includes IEEE and Vancouver.
- Author-date Style
References are placed in the text not in footnotes, and there is an alphabetical list of references (by author name) in the list of works cited, at the end of the work. This style includes APA, Harvard and MLA (and the author-date version of Chicago).
Software is available to help you format your references correctly. Reference management software can be used to store your references and to correctly cite material in your work. Many referencing styles in use at Kent are available, including APA, Chicago, Harvard (Kent Harvard), Kent Biosciences, IEEE, MHRA, MLA, OSCOLA (Kent Law), Physical Reviews and Vancouver. Two versions of software are available at the University: Endnote and RefWorks. Endnote is installed on University public PCs whilst RefWorks operates as an online service, accessible to anyone with a web connection and an account. For further information, see the reference management software page.back to top
Main reference styles used at the University of Kent
Click on the links below to get more information about referencing styles used at the University of Kent. Some schools in the Faculty of Science use styles recommended by certain journals. Check the list of styles used by each school.back to top
Reference styles listed by school
The styles listed for each school are guidelines only. Individual lecturers may wish you to use a different style. Click on the faculty links to find your school and the reference style recommended.
|American Studies, Centre for|
|Architecture, Kent School of|
|Arts, School of|
|European Culture and Languages, School of|
|History, School of|
|Medieval and Early Modern Studies, Centre for|
|Music and Fine Arts, School of|
|Biosciences, School of|
|Computing, School of|
|Engineering and Digital Arts, School of|
|Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science, School of|
|Physical Sciences, School of |
|Sport and Exercise Sciences, School of|
|Pharmacy, Medway School of|
|Anthropology and Conservation, School of|
|Kent Business School|
|Journalism, Centre for|
|Kent Law School|
|Politics and International Relations, School of|
|Psychology, School of|
|Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research, School of|
|Study of Higher Education, Centre for|
|Professional Practice, Centre for|
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We are always ready to help you with your essays. Our role here is to give advice and guidance so that you can develop successful essay writing skills and practices. We hope these will sustain you over a range of modules, and across the years you spend at Kent. Essay writing is a very popular area for academic advice and guidance. Many of our students comment on the way their grades improve once they seek advice; but this improvement takes place over time, and through your efforts. There are no instant solutions, but much we can say about good essay writing techniques. In general, we feel our guidance rests upon sensible recognition of clear boundaries between ourselves, students and departments.
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