University Of Kent Essay Layout

Reference styles

There are different types of referencing styles that can be used in your work: a footnote style, a numbered style or a an author-date style. You may be asked to just use an author-date style or you may be told to use an exact style, for example, the MLA style. If you know what referencing system you need to use, click the tab above 'Styles used at Kent'. If you are not sure which style to use, click the tab above 'Styles used by School'. Note that some schools use more than one referencing style. If you are not sure which style to use, check with your module handbook or your tutor.

  • Footnote Style
    Reference information is kept in footnotes and not placed in the body of the text. Depending on the style, a bibliography or reference list is included. This style includes Chicago (but note that this has two versions: footnote or author-date); MHRA and OSCOLA (legal referencing).
  • Numbered Style
    Creates a numerical list of references in the list of works cited, based on the order in which the works appear in the text. This style includes IEEE and Vancouver.
  • Author-date Style
    References are placed in the text not in footnotes, and there is an alphabetical list of references (by author name) in the list of works cited, at the end of the work. This style includes APA, Harvard and MLA (and the author-date version of Chicago).

Software is available to help you format your references correctly. Reference management software can be used to store your references and to correctly cite material in your work. Many referencing styles in use at Kent are available, including APA, Chicago, Harvard (Kent Harvard), Kent Biosciences, IEEE, MHRA, MLA, OSCOLA (Kent Law), Physical Reviews and Vancouver. Two versions of software are available at the University: Endnote and RefWorks. Endnote is installed on University public PCs whilst RefWorks operates as an online service, accessible to anyone with a web connection and an account. For further information, see the reference management software page.

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Main reference styles used at the University of Kent

Click on the links below to get more information about referencing styles used at the University of Kent. Some schools in the Faculty of Science use styles recommended by certain journals. Check the list of styles used by each school.

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Reference styles listed by school

The styles listed for each school are guidelines only. Individual lecturers may wish you to use a different style. Click on the faculty links to find your school and the reference style recommended.

Humanities

SchoolReference style
American Studies, Centre for
Architecture, Kent School of
  • Undergraduate programmes
    • Chicago online guide. Use the 'Notes and bibiography' style.
    • RefWorks users select ' Chicago 15th Edition (Notes & Bibliography)' (for footnote referencing)
  • Post graduate programmes
    • Kent Harvard (local guide)
    • RefWorks users select 'Kent Harvard - 2010 revised
Arts, School of
  • Kent Harvard (local guide)
  • RefWorks and EndNote users select 'Kent Harvard - 2010 revised edition'
English,School of
European Culture and Languages, School of
  • SECL Style Guide 2011
    • This guide has specific information on Harvard and Turabian styles for students in SECL. For further details on which style to use, check with your tutor
  • Turabian: RefWorks users select 'Turabian Notes'
  • Harvard: RefWorks users select 'Kent Harvard - 2010 revised edition'
History, School of
Medieval and Early Modern Studies, Centre for
Music and Fine Arts, School of
  • Kent Harvard (local guide)
  • RefWorks users select 'Kent Harvard - 2010 revised edition'

Sciences

SchoolReference style
Biosciences, School of
Computing, School of
  • Kent Harvard (local guide)
  • RefWorks users select 'Kent Harvard - 2010 revised edition'
Engineering and Digital Arts, School of
  • Electronic and Computer System Engineering
    • IEEE
    • RefWorks users select 'IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers'
  • Multimedia Technology and Design
    • Chicago online guide author-date style
    • RefWorks users select 'Chicago 15th Edition (Author-Date System)'
Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science, School of
  • Kent Harvard (local guide)
  • RefWorks users select 'Kent Harvard - 2010 revised edition'
Physical Sciences, School of

 

 

Sport and Exercise Sciences, School of
Pharmacy, Medway School of
  • Kent Harvard (local guide)
  • RefWorks users select 'Kent Harvard - 2010 revised edition'

Social Sciences

SchoolReference style
Anthropology and Conservation, School of
  • Kent Harvard (local guide)
  • RefWorks users select 'Kent Harvard - 2010 revised edition'
Kent Business School
  • Kent Harvard (local guide)
  • RefWorks users select 'Kent Harvard - 2010 revised edition'
Economics,School of
  • Kent Harvard (local guide)
  • RefWorks users select 'Kent Harvard - 2010 revised edition'
Journalism, Centre for
  • Kent Harvard (local guide)
  • RefWorks users select 'Kent Harvard - 2010 revised edition'
Kent Law School
Politics and International Relations, School of
  • Chicago online guide
  • RefWorks users select ' Chicago 15th Edition (Notes & Bibliography)' (for footnote referencing), or 'Chicago 15th Edition (Author-Date System)' (for in-text citations)
Psychology, School of
Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research, School of
  • Kent Harvard (local guide)
  • RefWorks users select 'Kent Harvard - 2010 revised edition'
Study of Higher Education, Centre for
  • Harvard
    • Kent Harvard (local guide)
    • RefWorks users select 'Kent Harvard - 2010 revised edition'
  • For those working in Schools using a referencing style other than Harvard, use your normal School style.
Tizard Centre
Professional Practice, Centre for
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How we help with essays

We are always ready to help you with your essays. Our role here is to give advice and guidance so that you can develop successful essay writing skills and practices.  We hope these will sustain you over a range of modules, and across the years you spend at Kent. Essay writing is a very popular area for academic advice and guidance. Many of our students comment on the way their grades improve once they seek advice; but this improvement takes place over time, and through your efforts. There are no instant solutions, but much we can say about good essay writing techniques. In general, we feel our guidance rests upon sensible recognition of clear boundaries between ourselves, students and departments.

What we can do

What we cannot do

Preparing/planning essays

  • Help you understand the essay title
  • Help you plan your essay
  • Provide guidance on successful reading/note-taking techniques
  • Help you manage the reading load
  • Guide you in writing your literature review
  • Help you with time-management
  • Discuss the academic content of your essay
  • Make judgements about your ideas and sources
  • Evaluate your reading material, or suggest further reading

Drafts

  • Help you organise/structure your essay by discussing-
    • Overall structure
    • Paragraph and sentence structure
  • Give you an opportunity to clarify your ideas
  • Help you write in an academic style
  • Help you reference effectively to avoid plagiarism

Help you with grammar, spelling and punctuation by examining a section of your writing

  • Re-write any of your essay
  • Select evidence for you
  • Correct citations and references across the whole of a document
  • Proof-read your document

Post - submission

  • Help you to learn from feed-back 
  • Re-mark your essay
  • Challenge your final grade
  • Enter into any kind of dispute between you and your department

 

If you have any questions about confidentiality, or any other aspect of the Student Learning Advisory Service work, please contact us. We will be happy to discuss this with you.

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